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2014 IEEE 4th International Model-Driven Requirements Engineering Workshop (MoDRE), August 25, 2014, Karlskrona, Sweden

MoDRE 2014 – Proceedings

Contents - Abstracts - Authors

2014 IEEE 4th International Model-Driven Requirements Engineering Workshop (MoDRE)


Title Page

Welcome to the Fourth International Workshop on Model-Driven Requirements Engineering (MoDRE) at the Requirements Engineering Conference 2014. The MoDRE workshop series has established a forum where researchers and practitioners can discuss the challenges of Model-Driven Development (MDD) for Requirements Engineering (RE).

State-of-Art and Goal Modelling

Model Driven Requirements Engineering: Mapping the Field and Beyond
Saïd Assar
(Institut Mines-Telecom, France)
Model Driven Engineering (MDE) holds the promise of raising the level of abstraction when designing systems by promoting domain specific modeling languages, model transformation techniques and code generation engines. Although requirements engineering (RE) relies on models and on modeling, RE and MDE have evolved separately and in distinct communities. The goal of our ongoing work is to analyze the state of the art regarding the convergence and evolution of MDE and RE. This paper is a preliminary study in which we review all papers published at MoDRE workshops and map them according to three perspectives: research issue, research contribution and evaluation method. Our analysis indicates clear predominance of proposals of new language for requirement representation and the derivation of system specifications. Other facets such as requirements elicitation and requirements validation methods are much less tackled, and traceability is seldom discussed.

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Goal Modeling for Sustainability: The Case of Time
Gunter Mussbacher and Douglas Nuttall
(McGill University, Canada; Parish Geomorphic, Canada)
Goal models have established themselves as a means to capture often conflicting needs of stakeholders and reason about how alternative solutions may impact those needs, allowing for trade-off assessments at the early stages of development. More recently, goal models have been extended with the notion of indicators that allow quantitative, real-life measurements to be used in addition to qualitative measurements to more precisely assess trade-offs. While goal models are most often used in the context of systems or software development, they are well suited to any type of development effort that involves a large set of diverse stakeholders. Sustainability Engineering is an emerging discipline that fits this profile, requiring everyone from individuals to large communities to be considered to maximize social benefit while minimizing negative ecological impact. This paper proposes a method to combine the high-level, qualitative assessment from goal models with the rigorous, detailed, quantitative sustainability assessment based on time cost that is applicable to varied types of development projects. The method is demonstrated through a development project from the construction industry and modeled with the Goal-oriented Requirement Language.

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Context Transformations for Goal Models
Paola Spoletini, Alessio Ferrari, and Stefania Gnesi
(University of Insubria, Italy; ISTI-CNR, Italy)
This paper proposes a technique to support the requirements engineer in transforming existing models into new models to address the customer’s needs. In particular, we identify a set of possible categories of context change that indicate in which direction the original model needs to evolve. Furthermore, we associate a transformation to each category, and we formalise it in terms of graph grammars. Our results are a generalisation of an experimental evaluation based on 10 models retrieved from the literature and 25 scenarios of context change. This work represents a step forward in the formalisation of requirements models since it provides the foundations of a tool to support the automatic transformation of models, and employs graph grammars to provide a formal layer to the approach.

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Combined Propagation-Based Reasoning with Goal and Feature Models
Yanji Liu, Yukun Su, Xinshang Yin, and Gunter Mussbacher
(McGill University, Canada)
The User Requirements Notation (URN) is an international requirements engineering standard published by the International Telecommunication Union. URN supports goal-oriented and scenario-based modeling as well as analysis. Feature modeling, on the other hand, is a well-establishing technique for capturing commonalities and variabilities of Software Product Lines. When combined with URN, it is possible to reason about the impact of feature configurations on stakeholder goals and system qualities, thus helping to identify the most appropriate features for a stakeholder. Combined reasoning of goal and feature models is also fundamental to Concern-Driven Development, where concerns are composed not only based on functionality expressed with feature models, but also based on impact on stakeholder goals. Therefore, an analysis technique for feature and goal models based on a single conceptual model is desirable, because of its potential to streamline model analysis and reduce the complexity of the analysis framework. This paper introduces such a technique, i.e., a single, propagation-based reasoning algorithm that supports combined reasoning of goal and feature models and offers additional usability improvements over existing goal-oriented reasoning mechanisms.

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Requirements Management

A DSL for Importing Models in a Requirements Management System
Anisur Rahman and Daniel Amyot
(University of Ottawa, Canada)
Requirements are artefacts often described with text and models. It is important to manage traceability between requirements and other software artefacts, including designs and test cases, also often captured with specialized models. Some Requirements Management Systems (RMS) support traceability relationships, between (textual) requirements artefacts in the RMS and model artefacts created outside the RMS, through complex standards or proprietary solutions. This paper proposes a new Domain-Specific Language (DSL) for describing the concepts of a modeling language intended to be traced using an RMS, with tool support handling the import and re-import of models and of their traceability links. The Model Import DSL (MI-DSL) is supported by an Xtext-based editor and the automatic generation of an import library targeting a leading RMS, namely IBM Rational DOORS. The language and the tools are demonstrated for model import and evolution scenarios with two different modeling languages. This work contributes a simple yet reliable mechanism to define and support traceability between requirements and models from different tools.

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SnapMind: A Framework to Support Consistency and Validation of Model-Based Requirements in Agile Development
Fernando Wanderley, António Silva, João Araujo, and Denis S. Silveira
(Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal; Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil)
Two fundamental principles and values of agile methods are customer satisfaction by rapid delivery of useful software and the improvement of the communication process by continuous stakeholders’ involvement. But, how to deal with customers’ satisfaction and find a better visualization model at the requirements level (which stakeholders can understand and be involved) in an agile development context? Also, how this visualization model enhancement can guarantee consistency between agile requirements artefacts (e.g., user stories and domain models)? Thus, to answer these questions, this paper presents the SnapMind framework. This framework aims to make the requirements modelling process more user-centered, through the definition of a visual requirements language, based on mind maps, model-driven and domain specific language techniques. Moreover, through these techniques, the SnapMind framework focuses on support for consistency between user stories and the domain models using a model animation technique called snapshots. The framework was applied to an industrial case study to investigate its feasibility.

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Experimental Evaluation of a Tool for Change Impact Prediction in Requirements Models: Design, Results, and Lessons Learned
Arda Goknil, Roderick van Domburg, Ivan Kurtev, Klaas van den Berg, and Fons Wijnhoven
(University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg; University of Twente, Netherlands; Nspyre, Netherlands)
There are commercial tools like IBM Rational RequisitePro and DOORS that support semi-automatic change impact analysis for requirements. These tools capture the requirements relations and allow tracing the paths they form. In most of these tools, relation types do not say anything about the meaning of the relations except the direction. When a change is introduced to a requirement, the requirements engineer analyzes the impact of the change in related requirements. In case semantic information is missing to determine precisely how requirements are related to each other, the requirements engineer generally has to assume the worst case dependencies based on the available syntactic information only. We developed a tool that uses formal semantics of requirements relations to support change impact analysis and prediction in requirements models. The tool TRIC (Tool for Requirements Inferencing and Consistency checking) works on models that explicitly represent requirements and the relations among them with their formal semantics. In this paper we report on the evaluation of how TRIC improves the quality of change impact predictions. A quasi-experiment is systematically designed and executed to empirically validate the impact of TRIC. We conduct the quasi-experiment with 21 master’s degree students predicting change impact for five change scenarios in a real software requirements specification. The participants are assigned with Microsoft Excel, IBM RequisitePro or TRIC to perform change impact prediction for the change scenarios. It is hypothesized that using TRIC would positively impact the quality of change impact predictions. Two formal hypotheses are developed. As a result of the experiment, we are not able to reject the null hypotheses, and thus we are not able to show experimentally the effectiveness of our tool. In the paper we discuss reasons for the failure to reject the null hypotheses in the experiment.

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Requirements Traceability

A Requirements Engineering Methodology Combining Models and Controlled Natural Language
Markus Fockel and Jörg Holtmann
(Fraunhofer IPT, Germany)
The use of models in requirements engineering (RE) for software-intensive embedded systems is considered beneficial. The main advantages of requirements models as documentation format are that they facilitate requirements understanding and foster automatic analysis techniques. However, natural language (NL) is still the dominant documentation format for requirements specifications, particularly in the domain of embedded systems. This is due to the facts that NL-based requirements can be used within legally binding documents and are more appropriate for reviews than models. In order to bridge the gap between both of these documentation formats, this paper proposes a model-driven RE methodology that makes use of requirements models along with a controlled natural language. The methodology combines the advantages of model-based and NL-based documentation by means of a bidirectional multi-step model transformation between both documentation formats. We illustrate the approach by means of an automotive example, explain the particular steps of the model transformation, and present performance results.

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Understanding and Closing the Gap between Requirements on System and Subsystem Level
Sabine Teufl, Wolfgang Böhm, and Ralf Pinger
(fortiss, Germany; TU München, Germany; Siemens, Germany)
In systems engineering, the increasing complexity of systems is handled by decomposing systems into subsystems. As part of the decomposition typically more abstract system requirements are refined to more detailed subsystem requirements. Refining system requirements to subsystem requirements includes the two steps interface refinement on the system boundaries, and a decomposition of system requirements to subsystem requirements. In order to apply formal analysis and verification techniques on the refinement of requirements, a formal refinement specification is necessary.
In this paper we show the results of an exploratory industrial case study provided by Siemens, where we analyzed the refinement from system to subsystem requirements. We show that formal refinement specifications can become very complex, when interface refinement and requirement decompositions are performed in one step. In order to reduce complexity in the formal refinement specification, we introduce a formal restructuring approach for requirements. The main benefits of this restructuring approach are twofold. It enables reuse of requirements and knowledge preservation on the system level when the system architecture changes. Furthermore, quality assurance of the refinement on system level can now be performed independently from the system decomposition.

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Requirement Traceability: A Model-Based Approach
Omar Badreddin, Arnon Sturm, and Timothy C. Lethbridge
(Northern Arizona University, USA; Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel; University of Ottawa, Canada)
Requirements tractability remains challenging, particularly in the prevalence of code centric approaches. Similarly, within the emerging model centric paradigm, requirements traceability is addressed only to a limited extent. To facilitate such traceability, we call for representing requirements as first class entities in the emerging paradigm of model-oriented programming. This has the objective of enabling software developers, modelers, and business analysts to manipulate requirements entities as textual model and code elements. To illustrate the feasibility of such an approach, we propose a Requirement-Oriented Modeling and Programming Language (ROMPL) that demonstrates how modeling abstractions can be utilized to manage the behavior and relationships of key requirements entities.

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