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2013 3rd International Workshop on Model-Driven Requirements Engineering (MoDRE), July 15, 2013, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

MoDRE 2013 – Proceedings

Contents - Abstracts - Authors

2013 3rd International Workshop on Model-Driven Requirements Engineering (MoDRE)

Title Page

Welcome to the Third International Workshop on Model-Driven Requirements Engineering (MoDRE) at the Requirements Engineering Conference 2013. The MoDRE workshop series has established a forum where researchers and practitioners can discuss the challenges of Model-Driven Development (MDD) for Requirements Engineering (RE).

Generating Goal-Oriented Models from Creative Requirements using Model Driven Engineering
Fernando Wanderley and João Araújo
(UNL, Portugal)
The KAOS framework aims to avoid eliciting ambiguous or irrelevant requirements and allows efficient and easy communication between stakeholders. Nevertheless, KAOS is designed mainly for requirements engineers, not so much for other important stakeholders, that understand better other kinds of models, such as mind maps. Thus, this paper proposes an approach for generating KAOS goal models from mind maps by adopting model-driven techniques. The use of mind maps, as a creative and agile requirements technique, aims to encourage the construction of KAOS goal models more effectively and in a simpler way by involving all kinds of stakeholders that do need to know about KAOS. Our approach also contains the definition of a systematic process and is applied to an industrial case application

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Requirements for a Modeling Language to Specify and Match Business Process Improvement Patterns
Alireza Pourshahid, Gunter Mussbacher, Daniel Amyot, and Michael Weiss
(University of Ottawa, Canada; Carleton University, Canada)
Businesses are always looking for opportunities to improve their processes in order to become more efficient and effective. Patterns for business process improvement have been defined and used as best practices to help analysts discover such opportunities. A modeling language allowing analysts to define or use a predefined library of improvement patterns to detect improvement opportunities in business processes can be of a significant value. Based on a comprehensive set of improvement patterns from the literature, this paper defines the requirements for a modeling language to support a framework capable of defining and detecting such patterns. We use an example from the retail industry to motivate the collected requirements. The paper's contributions allow us to capture more sophisticated business process improvement patterns, bringing us one step closer to a comprehensive model-driven, aspect-oriented business process modeling language. Furthermore, the collected requirements for the desired modeling language clearly indicate that currently popular business process modeling languages are not yet capable of capturing all the required details for business process improvement patterns on a broad scale.

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Improving User Involvement through a Model-Driven Requirements Approach
José Matías Rivero, Esteban Robles Luna, Julián Grigera, and Gustavo Rossi
(Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina)
Model-Driven Web Engineering (MDWE) methodologies have proven to be a mature way of developing web applications, dramatically increasing productivity during development. However, after more than a decade of evolution, the artifacts and processes used to gather requirements have not changed substantially. At the same time, the capacity of quickly adapting to emergent domain-specific requirements (a feature that became popular with the massive adoption of agile approaches) has become hard to achieve in these methodologies. In this context, in order to implement this kind of refined requirements as fast as possible, changes are usually applied directly to the generated application, losing the abstraction and its inherent productivity provided by the Model-Driven process. Another way of implementing this kind of changes is by extending the modeling language, but this implies a high effort and, again, a consequent productivity loss. In this paper we propose a model-driven development approach called MockRE that captures requirements using User Interface prototypes (mockups) that end-users can understand completely. The process and tooling presented here allows end-users to express requirements annotating the mockups with textual descriptions, and also generating a running application in the same way that MDWE environments do. Developers may later use these initial specifications placed by end-users as valuable model concepts that can be refined through direct coding in a non- intrusive way. Through this strategy, MockRE intends to make a more extensive reuse of end-users specifications throughout the whole developing process.

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Towards a Comprehensive Meta-Model for KAOS
Joshua C. Nwokeji, Tony Clark, and Balbir S. Barn
(Middlesex University, UK)
Goal Oriented Modelling (GOM) has proved very useful in Software Engineering. KAOS is a popular language for GOM, and has been applied in requirements analysis, specification, and elicitation. Model Based Software Engineering (MBSE) technologies have traditionally addressed the what and how of systems but have offered little support for why. A solution is to extend MBSE languages with GOM, and KAOS in particular, thereby allowing goals to take part in model transformation and analysis.However, there is no complete Meta-Model for KAOS that would be suitable for such an integration. This paper analyses existing work on KAOS language definition and consolidates it into a single Meta-Model, defined in Ecore, that is suitable as a basis for MBSE; and then implements a Graphical Editor for the Meta-Model using MBSE Techniques. The Graphical Editor is applied to model a case study described in the paper. Our Meta-Model is validated by showing how OCL can be used to encode the definition of the completeness of a KAOS model.

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RSL-IL: An Interlingua for Formally Documenting Requirements
David de Almeida Ferreira and Alberto Rodrigues da Silva
(IST, Portugal)
Despite being the most suitable language to communicate requirements, the intrinsic ambiguity of natural language often undermines requirements quality criteria, specially clearness and consistency. Several proposals have been made to increase the rigor of requirements representations through conceptual models, which encompass different perspectives to completely describe the system. However, this multi-representation strategy warrants significant human effort to produce and reuse such models, as well as to enforce their consistency. This paper presents RSL-IL, a Requirements Specification Language that tackles the requirements formalization problem by providing a minimal set of constructs. To cope with the most typical Requirements Engineering concerns, RSL-IL constructs are internally organized into viewpoints. Since these constructs are tightly integrated, RSL-IL enables the representation of requirements in a way that makes them formal enough for being tractable by a computer. Given that RSL-IL provides a stable intermediate representation that can improve the quality and enables requirements reuse, it can be regarded as a requirements interlingua. Also, RSL-IL can be used as a source language within the context of model-to-model transformations to produce specific conceptual models. To illustrate how RSL-IL can be applied in a real project, this paper provides a running example based on a case study.

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Modelling Data Interaction Requirements: A Position Paper
Sagar Sen, Jose Luis de la Vara, Arnaud Gotlieb, and Arnab Sarkar
(Simula Research Laboratory, Norway; West Bengal University of Technology, India)
Data-intensive information systems constitute the backbone of e-commerce and e-governance services running worldwide. Structured data is a central artefact in these information systems. Requirements for structure in data are typically modelled in a database schema. However, information system behaviour is often a function of interactions that cross-cut database features such as field values in different tables. For instance, consultants at the Norwegian Customs and Excise reveal that taxation rules are triggered due to data interactions between 10,000 items, 88 country groups, and 934 tax codes. There are about 12.9 trillion possible three-wise interactions of which only about 220,000 interactions are used in reality as customs rules. Therefore, we ask, how can we model data interaction requirements to further bound the input domain of an information system? In this position paper, we address this question by modelling data interaction requirements using classification tree models. We also present different applications of data interaction requirements in the development of information systems.

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Towards the Model-Driven Engineering of Security Requirements for Embedded Systems
Yves Roudier, Muhammad Sabir Idrees, and Ludovic Apvrille
(EURECOM, France; Telecom ParisTech, France)
This paper discusses why and how security requirements engineering must be adapted to the model-driven approach usually adopted to design and develop embedded systems. In particular, we discuss to what extent the elicitation of security requirements and the Y-chart partitioning approach, a central design methodology in embedded systems, can mutually enrich each other. We also show how SysML, which is already commonly used to engineer requirements in embedded systems, can also represent security requirements, assets, and threats with only a few extensions and thus support a more comprehensive requirements engineering methodology. We illustrate the use of our overall methodology and toolkit with examples from the automotive embedded system field in order to demonstrate the relevance of our approach.

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Security Requirements Formalized with OCL in a Model-Driven Approach
Marian Borek, Nina Moebius, Kurt Stenzel, and Wolfgang Reif
(University of Augsburg, Germany)
Security requirements are properties that have to be guaranteed for an application. Such guarantees can be given using verification. But there is a huge gap between security requirements expressed with human language and formal security properties that can be verified. This paper presents the use of OCL to formalize security requirements in a model-driven approach for security-critical applications. SecureMDD is such a model-driven approach. It uses UML to model the application and OCL to specify the security requirements. From the application model and the contained OCL constraints, a formal specification of the application including the security properties is generated automatically. This specification is used to verify application-specific security properties that matches a lot of security requirements much better than application-independent security properties like secrecy, integrity and confidentiality. We demonstrate how to concretize security requirements as well as the use of OCL constraints to specify security requirements, the transformation from OCL constraints into algebraic specifications and the use of those specifications to verify the security requirements using an electronic ticketing system as a case study.

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Modelling Multiplicity in Choreography Models
Urooj Fatima and Rolv Bræk
(NTNU, Norway)
Distributed reactive systems provide services where active concurrent components collaborate, may take independent initiatives and interact with each other and their environment. The modelling of such systems is complex. In this paper, we continue previous research where an approach is proposed to model distributed reactive systems. This approach enables us to define precise and complete global behaviour of reactive services through flow-global choreographies. These flow-global choreographies are mapped to flow-localized choreographies and further to distributed component designs in a systematic way. The complete and precise choreographies help service engineers to concentrate on choreographies only and to identify problems early at requirements specification. The proposed approach has the potential to become highly automated. While defining global behaviour, one normally focuses on just one instance of each role in a service to simplify the model. In some cases however, it is important to consider multiplicity issues early while defining requirements. The question then is when and how to deal with multiplicity of role instances and service sessions? Solutions to this problem in different contexts are proposed and discussed in this paper.

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