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2013 35th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE)
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2013 2nd International Workshop on Green and Sustainable Software (GREENS), May 20, 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA

GREENS 2013 – Proceedings

Contents - Abstracts - Authors

2nd International Workshop on Green and Sustainable Software (GREENS)


Title Page

Software can become greener by being more energy efficient, hence using less resources; or by making its supported processes more sustainable, hence decreasing the environmental impact of governments, companies and individuals using software applications and services. While research results exist in measuring and controlling the level of greenness of hardware components, major research is needed to relate energy consumption of hardware to energy consumption of its executing software. Measuring the level of greenness of software and reporting it back to the users is the focus of GREENS 2013 with special theme “Leveraging Energy Efficiency to Software Users.” GREENS brings together software engineering researchers and practitioners to discuss the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice in green software, as well as research challenges, novel ideas, methods, experiences, and tools to support the engineering of sustainable and energy efficient software systems.

Green Software Services

Green Software Services: From Requirements to Business Models
Schahram Dustdar, Fei Li, Hong-Linh Truong, Sanjin Sehic, Stefan Nastic, Soheil Qanbari, Michael Vögler, and Markus Claeßens
(TU Vienna, Austria)
In recent years, green software research is gaining momentum because of the acute need for sustainable development. Most past research has been focused on the definitions, metrics and technical solutions for green software, but few has addressed green software from the business perspective. In this paper, we present the analysis on three key elements of Green Software Services (GSS)---stakeholders, their requirements, and business models. The stakeholders of GSS are detailed with the services each stakeholder can provide and consume, thus clarifying their interests to GSS. Based on this analysis, we present the domain-independent, high-level requirements to GSS that cover diverse needs of different stakeholders. Six business models are then proposed to promote collaborations of stakeholders on the delivery of GSS. In the end, the relationship between GSS and cloud is discussed and a GSS marketplace is envisioned.

Green Web Services: Improving Energy Efficiency in Data Centers via Workload Predictions
Massimiliano Menarini, Filippo Seracini, Xiang Zhang, Tajana Rosing, and Ingolf Krüger
(UC San Diego, USA)
Improving energy efficiency of data centers is an important research challenge. Web services are an important part of data centers’ workload, and a large contributor to their energy footprint. This paper contributes an approach that, leveraging statistical data over web services usage patterns, dynamically predicts the resources required by the web service application. Our framework, SOPRA, uses these predictions to constantly adapt the allocation of resources to minimize the energy utilization of the data center. We demonstrate the viability of our approach by executing SOPRA over a synthetic workload. We compare the energy savings achieved by SOPRA with the traditional over allocation strategy and with the saving achievable by using a static predictor. Furthermore, we show how different service level agreements (SLA) influence the ability to save energy. The results of our experiments show that, with our workload, we can save up to 52.49% of energy over the over-allocation approach while a static prediction can only achieve a 44.78% saving. Moreover, our results show that the SLA has a high impact on energy savings. Using a more demanding SLA, the energy saving SOPRA was able to achieve was only 28.29%.

Investigating the Impacts of Web Servers on Web Application Energy Usage
Irene Manotas, Cagri Sahin, James Clause, Lori Pollock, and Kristina Winbladh
(University of Delaware, USA)
Software engineers make decisions about the design of the software they are creating on a daily basis. These decisions may impact the application in terms of efficiency, usability, flexibility, etc. Different competing design decisions are therefore often eval- uated in terms of their projected impact on quality metrics prior to implementation. Recently energy has become a concern for software systems, ranging from mobile devices to large data centers. Additionally, it has been recognized that the software executing on a computing device can have a significant impact on the devices energy consumption. This raises the obvious question of whether or not it is possible to reduce the energy consumption of a software system by the means of software design decisions. This work examines how the use of different servers impacts the energy consumption of a web application. Through a controlled empirical experiment we have discovered several important findings in this regard. The results indicate that the energy consumption of a web application can vary greatly depending on the web server used to handle its requests. Furthermore, different web servers are more or less energy efficient depending on which web application features are being executed. The paper details an analysis of the results of the experiment.

Energy-Efficiency Indicators for e-Services
Jeroen Arnoldus, Joris Gresnigt, Kay Grosskop, and Joost Visser
(Software Improvement Group, Netherlands; Logius, Netherlands; Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands)
Great strides have been made to increase the energy efficiency of hardware, data center facilities, and network infrastructure. These Green IT initiatives aim to reduce energy-loss in the supply chain from energy grid to computing devices. However, the demand for computation comes from software applications that perform business services. Therefore, to measure and improve efficiency for entire systems, energy-efficiency indicators are needed at the level of services. We have designed an initial set of indicators for energy-efficiency of e-services and we have tested them on two e-government services of the Dutch national government. We explain how these indicators serve as a starting point for energy-optimization initiatives, supported by appropriate contractual agreements between service owners and suppliers.

Metrics and Measurements

SEFLab: A Lab for Measuring Software Energy Footprints
Miguel A. Ferreira, Eric Hoekstra, Bo Merkus, Bram Visser, and Joost Visser
(Software Improvement Group, Netherlands; Hogeschool van Amsterdam, Netherlands; Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands)
Hardware dissipates energy because software tells it to. But attributing hardware energy usage to particular software functions is complicated due to distribution, resource sharing, and layering of software. To enable research on energy usage attribution, we have created the Software Energy Footprint Lab. We explain the experimental setup offered by the lab and the measurement and analysis methodology that it supports. We also describe some preliminary results aimed at deciphering hardware dissipation profiles for various types of servers under various forms of software stress. Finally, we provide an outlook of how energy footprint measurements can contribute to a body of knowledge on software-level energy optimization.

A Method for Characterizing Energy Consumption in Android Smartphones
Luis Corral, Anton B. Georgiev, Alberto Sillitti, and Giancarlo Succi
(Free University of Bolzano, Italy)
Cellular phones and tablets are ubiquitous, with a market penetration that is counted in millions of active users and units sold. The increasing computing capabilities and strict autonomy requirements on mobile devices drive a particular concern on energy utilization and optimization of this kind of equipment. In this paper, we investigate an approach to relate the energy consumption of smartphones with the operational status of the device, surveying parameters exposed by the operating system using an Android application. Our goal is to explore the means to expand the information that may help to produce more reliable measurements that can be used in further research for designing energy optimization profiles for mobile devices and identify optimization needs.

A Systematic Literature Review for Software Sustainability Measures
Coral Calero, Manuel F. Bertoa, and Ma Ángeles Moraga
(University of Castile–La Mancha, Spain; University of Malaga, Spain)
Nowadays, sustainability is a key factor that should be considered in the software quality models. It is increasingly important how environmentally friendly is a software product, both in its execution and during its development process. Therefore, we have proposed, in a previous work, a quality model (25010+S) an extension of the ISO/IEC 25010 standard by considering aspects of sustainability on its characteristics and sub-characteristics. However, in order to make the model useful, it is necessary to identify measures for each sub-characteristic and characteristic. For that reason, the objective of this paper is to carry out a Systematic Literature Review to discover the state-of-the art in software sustainability measures.

Towards Application-Specific Impact Specifications and GreenSLAs
Colin Atkinson and Thomas Schulze
(University of Mannheim, Germany)
As the trend towards clouds and the delivery of software applications “as a service” continues, the importance of controlling, and if possible reducing, the environmental impact of the supporting data centers assumes ever more importance. However, increasing efficiency alone will not necessarily have the desired impact if computing service consumption levels grow out of control. Increased efficiency needs to be accompanied by responsible usage, which in turns requires users to be aware of the impact of their computing consumption choices. This paper makes a first step in this direction by proposing some techniques for making statements about the environmental impact of specific applications based on formal, but human readable, specifications of their functionality. It then shows how these techniques can be extended to support the definition of application specific, GreenSLAs (Service Level Agreements) which allow the contract between computing service suppliers and consumers to include constraints on the acceptable environmental impact (e.g. energy usage or CO2 emissions).

Green Software Lifecycle

Energy-Directed Test Suite Optimization
Ding Li, Cagri Sahin, James Clause, and William G. J. Halfond ORCID logo
(University of Southern California, USA; University of Delaware, USA)
Post-deployment, in situ testing and validation techniques have become an important means of ensuring the reliability of mobile and embedded systems. However, these techniques do not take into consideration the amount of energy they consume, which is an issue of paramount concern for systems with limited energy budgets. In this paper we propose a new test suite minimization approach that allows developers to generate energy-efficient, minimized test suites. The approach is based on encoding minimization problems as integer linear programming problems. Our empirical evaluation shows that, compared to traditionally generated minimized test suites, the test suites generated by our approach are equally effective in terms of their test coverage, but can realize energy savings of up to 90 %.

Who Is the Advocate? Stakeholders for Sustainability
Birgit Penzenstadler, Henning Femmer, and Debra Richardson
(TU Munich, Germany; UC Irvine, USA)
While the research community has started working on sustainable software engineering recently, one question that is often asked still remains unanswered: who are the stakeholders? Who are the people who actually have an interest in improving the sustainability of a specific software system or of the discipline of software engineering itself? And who are the devil's advocates?
Having no explicit stakeholders is a problem as improvement of sustainability is challenging without a driving force. An objective that has no stakeholder is not likely to receive sufficient attention to be realized and will eventually disappear.
In this paper, we present four approaches of identifying stakeholders for sustainability in a given context: top-down by sustainability dimensions (individual, social, environmental, economic, and technical), by instantiation of a generic list, bottom-up by an organigram, and iteratively by an activity model according to the generic sustainability model. We furthermore analyze the feasibility by a small case study for each approach.
As the stakeholders are the key persons determining whether or not any objective is achieved, identifying the stakeholders for sustainability is crucial for successfully implementing sustainability support in a given context.

Green Software Engineering with Agile Methods
Markus Dick, Jakob Drangmeister, Eva Kern, and Stefan Naumann
(Trier University of Applied Sciences, Germany)
The energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) is still increasing. Since several concepts regarding hardware solutions for Green IT exist, the contribution of software to Green IT is still not well investigated. This comprises the production and the usage impact of software on energy consumption. In our paper, we discuss this contribution. Especially, we present a model that integrates Green IT aspects into software engineering processes with agile methods in order to produce greener software from scratch.

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