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2012 First International Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges for the Smart Grid (SE-SmartGrids), June 3, 2012, Zurich, Switzerland

SE-SmartGrids 2012 – Proceedings

Contents - Abstracts - Authors

First International Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges for the Smart Grid (SE-SmartGrids)

Preface

Title Page

Foreword
We would like to take this opportunity to welcome you all to the very first workshop on Software Engineering for the Smart Grid (SE4SG 2012). The workshop focuses on understanding and identifying the unique challenges and opportunities for Software Engineering (SE) to contribute to and enhance the design and development of the smart grid. In smart grids, the geographical scale, requirements on real-time performance and reliability, and diversity of application functionality all combine to produce a unique, highly demanding problem domain for software engineers to address. The objective of this workshop is to bring together members of the software engineering community and the power engineering community to understand these requirements and determine the most appropriate software engineering tools, methods and techniques.

Architecture and Design

OPC Unified Architecture: A Service-Oriented Architecture for Smart Grids
Sebastian Lehnhoff, Sebastian Rohjans, Mathias Uslar, and Wolfgang Mahnke
(OFFIS Institute for Information Technology, Germany; ABB Research, Germany)
In this paper, the OPC UA is introduced as a key technology for realizing a variety of Smart Grid use cases enabling relevant tasks of automation and control. OPC UA is the successor of the established Classic OPC specification and state of the art regarding information exchange in the industrial automation branch. One of its key improvements over the Classic OPC is that the area of application is no longer restricted to industrial automation but OPC UA can be applied almost in every domain facing challenges in automated control. This improvement stems from a more generic and object-oriented approach. For the adoption of OPC UA to Smart Grids, two of the most important data models -- the Common Information Model (CIM) and the IEC 61850 -- have been identified to be integrated into OPC UA communication. In this contribution, basic OPC UA features and functionalities (information modeling, communication services, and information security) are introduced and discussed in the context of Smart Grids.
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Establishing a Smart Grid Node Architecture and Demonstrator in an Office Environment Using the SOA Approach
Dagmar Koß, Denis Bytschkow, Pragya Kirti Gupta, Bernhard Schätz, Florian Sellmayr, and Steffen Bauereiß
(fortiss, Germany; TU Munich, Germany)
The introduction of low-cost renewable energy production, e.g., by photovoltaic, has turned classical grid nodes like homes and offices in prosumers, taking an active role in smart energy systems by merging home-automation and energy production functionality. However, to become a self-balancing element of a stable smart grid, supporting the energy-aware cooperative production, storage, and consumption, a scalable software is needed, tailored for smart micro grids and their integration in large-scale systems. In the following, the imple- mentation of a layered SOA-based distributed architecture is presented, that provides open interfaces simplifying the plug- and-play of hardware and software components.
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Towards a Modular and Scalable Architecture for High-Level Smart Grid Applications
Niels Streekmann, Simon Giesecke, Gerriet Reents, Matthias Rohr, Michael Stadler, Nils Vogel, Martin Frenzel, Jörg Friebe, and Till Luhmann
(BTC Business Technology Consulting, Germany)
Sensor and actor population within future smart distribution grids is much denser than within transmission grids. Thereby, future grid management systems have to cope with larger amounts of data than today’s grid management systems. Also, future high-level applications for network management must be suited for use within automatic control loops. This results in new challenges for designing high-level application components for power grid management. This paper addresses related software engineering challenges and presents solutions for designing software within the context of grid management.
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Analysis and Framework

Challenges on Software Defect Analysis in Smart Grid Applications
Mohsen Anvaari, Daniela S. Cruzes, and Reidar Conradi
(NTNU, Norway)
Smart Grid software applications are a kind of ultra-large-scale system (ULSS) where complexity has a profound impact on their quality and defect profiles. Their complexity also adds challenges to the process of designing studies to investigate their complicated software development. In this paper we propose an empirical research agenda to study the relationship between the characteristics of Smart Grid software applications as a ULSS and their software defect profile. We base our discussion on a structured literature review and on an ongoing case study in a software company. Future studies are needed on certain characteristics of Smart Grid software applications that affect their defect profile. For this purpose, not only the software development companies but also the grid utilities should be studied.
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A Common Analysis Framework for Smart Distribution Networks Applied to Survivability Analysis of Distribution Automation
Anne Koziolek, Lucia Happe, Alberto Avritzer, and Sindhu Suresh
(University of Zurich, Switzerland; KIT, Germany; Siemens, USA)
Smart distribution networks shall improve the efficiency and reliability of power distribution by intelligently managing the available power and requested load. Such intelligent power networks pose challenges for information and communication technology (ICT). Their design requires a holistic assessment of traditional power system topology and ICT architecture. Existing analysis approaches focus on analyzing the power networks components separately. For example, communication simulation provides failure data for communication links, while power analysis makes predictions about the stability of the traditional power grid. However, these insights are not combined to provide a basis for design decisions for future smart distribution networks. In this paper, we describe a common model-driven analysis framework for smart distribution networks based on the Common Information Model (CIM). This framework provides scalable analysis of large smart distribution networks by supporting analyses on different levels of abstraction. Furthermore, we apply our framework to holistic survivability analysis. We map the CIM on a survivability model to enable assessing design options with respect to the achieved survivability improvement. We demonstrate our approach by applying the mapping transformation in a case study based on a real distribution circuit. We conclude by evaluating the survivability impact of three investment options.
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Dynamic Forecasting and Adaptation for Demand Optimization in the Smart Grid
Eamonn O'Toole and Siobhán Clarke
(Lero, Ireland; Trinity College Dublin, Ireland)
The daily peaks and valleys in energy demand create inefficiencies and expense in the operation of the electricity grid. Valley periods force utilities to curtail renewable energy sources such as wind as their unpredictable nature makes it difficult to maintain line frequency across the network within target bounds. Peak periods require additional generators that remain dormant during other periods. Smoothing this demand cycle is one of the fundamental challenges of the Smart Grid, requiring flexibility and coordination between actors throughout the Grid. This paper describes the Smart Grid as a multi-layered system and proposes a cross-layered dynamic adaptation approach to facilitate this flexibility and coordination. This method uses a hierarchical taxonomy to identify appropriate adaptation actions in response to identified mismatches, supported by a run-time predictive statistical framework to predict mismatches, enabling timely adaptations to be triggered.
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Use Cases

Initial Survey of Smart Grid Activities in the Norwegian Energy Sector – Use Cases, Industrial Challenges and Implications for Research
Tosin Daniel Oyetoyan, Reidar Conradi, and Kjell Sand
(NTNU, Norway; SINTEF, Norway)
Understanding user requirements and technological challenges for Smart Grid is important to deliver competitive and visionary products and services, and thus to shape the direction of research and development. Since Smart Grid is still in the formation stage with many stakeholders, we should quickly develop consensual and pragmatic international standards and strategies. Our goal is to assess the feasibility of proposed Smart Grid requirements, formulated as 16 generic use-cases by an EU working group, and to identify attitudes, products, services and future technologies. Subsequently, we want to provide information on identified gaps between technologies, functionalities and stakeholders` views, and future direction. We have designed and carried out an initial industrial survey in Norway on how generic use-cases for Smart Grid activities are interpreted by 6 representative stakeholders in the Norwegian energy sector. To achieve this goal, we designed a survey with metrics built on and around these use-cases. Our results showed that the users’ work experience and views on the functionality expressed in the use-cases revealed a gap in focus and culture. Also, there was no agreement on what the term “Smart Grid” stood for. In addition, the relevance of Smart Grid functionalities is shown to vary over time and with different stakeholders. The pre-study results indicated that there is potential for using information from future data collected from over 270 actors to bridge gaps and focus on Smart Grid research and development.
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GridOPTICS(TM): A Design for Plug-and-Play Smart Grid Software Architecture
Ian Gorton, Yan Liu, and Jian Yin
(Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA)
As the smart grid becomes reality, software architectures for integrating legacy systems with new innovative approaches for grid management are needed. These architectures must exhibit flexibility, extensibility, interoperability and scalability. In this position paper, we describe our preliminary work to design such an architecture, known as GridOPTICS, that will enable the deployment and integration of new software tools in smart grid operations. Our preliminary design is based upon use cases from PNNL’s Future Power Grid Initiative, which is developing a collection of advanced software technologies for smart grid management and control. We describe the motivations for GridOPTICS, and the preliminary design that we are currently prototyping for several distinct use cases.
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Modeling and QoS

Software Models for Smart Grid
Anjali Singhal and Ramendra P. Saxena
(Mahamaya Technical University, India)
Smart grid technology is progressing worldwide. Various Countries are investing to transform their traditional power grid to Smart grid. They have started realigning their organization to support a Smart grid vision. At this initial stage some software models are required to quantifiably evaluate, monitor the progress and plan for the realization of a smart grid. At present some models like Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model, Smart Grid Investment Model, Smart Grid Maturity Model and Smart Grid Conceptual Model are available. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model is used to measure the current status of automation in the areas like transmission, distribution and demand side resources. The Smart Grid Investment Model is used in calculating different smart grid investments, along with their strategies. Smart Grid Maturity model is used in planning of utilities in smart grid transformation; prioritize the tasks and measuring their progress at every stage. Smart Grid Conceptual Model is used to analyze different standards and interoperations of smart grid development. A new proposed Smart Grid Monitoring Model will help in understanding smart grid deployment and capability within electric utility companies.
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Adaptive Security and Privacy in Smart Grids: A Software Engineering Vision
Mazeiar Salehie, Liliana Pasquale, Inah Omoronyia, and Bashar Nuseibeh
(Lero, Ireland; University of Limerick, Ireland)
Despite the benefits offered by smart grids, energy producers, distributors and consumers are increasingly concerned about possible security and privacy threats. These threats typically manifest themselves at runtime as new usage scenarios arise and vulnerabilities are discovered. Adaptive security and privacy promise to address these threats by increasing awareness and automating prevention, detection and recovery from security and privacy requirements’ failures at runtime by re-configuring system controls and perhaps even changing requirements. This paper discusses the need for adaptive security and privacy in smart grids by presenting some motivating scenarios. We then outline some research issues that arise in engineering adaptive security. We particularly scrutinize published reports by NIST on smart grid security and privacy as the basis for our discussions.
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Applying Formal Software Engineering Techniques to Smart Grids
Georg Hackenberg, Maximilian Irlbeck, Vasileios Koutsoumpas, and Denis Bytschkow
(TU Munich, Germany; fortiss, Germany)
Engineering complex systems that have to meet critical requirements is a difficult task, especially if multiple engineering disciplines are involved. Common practice in domains like the automotive or avionic industry shows that formal methods improve engineering process efficiency for embedded software due to abilities like abstraction, early verification and iterative refinement. This paper presents how existing formal software engineering methods can be adapted to meet the needs of the smart grid domain. A case study demonstrates how we develop a basic interdisciplinary but semantically integrated decomposition of a household including electric and software behavior. Finally, we provide first simulation results to evaluate the feasibility of the model as well as the presented engineering method.
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